Thought deceleration

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Thought deceleration (also known as bradyphrenia)[1] is defined as the process of thought being slowed down significantly in comparison to that of normal sobriety. When experiencing this effect, it will feel as if the time it takes to think a thought and the amount of time which occurs between each thought has been slowed down to the point of greatly impairing cognitive processes. It can manifest itself in delayed recognition, slower reaction times, and fine motor skills deficits.

Thought deceleration is often accompanied by other coinciding effects such as analysis suppression and sedation in a manner which not only decreases the person's speed of thought, but also significantly decreases the sharpness of a person's mental clarity. It is most commonly induced under the influence of heavy dosages of depressant compounds, such as GABAergics,[2][3][4] antipsychotics,[5] and opioids.[6][7][8] However, it can also occur to a lesser extent under the influence of heavy dosages of hallucinogens such as psychedelics,[9] dissociatives,[10] deliriants,[4][11] and cannabinoids.[12][13][14][15]

Psychoactive substances

Compounds within our psychoactive substance index which may cause this effect include:

... further results

Experience reports

Annectdotal reports which describe this effect with our experience index include:

See also

External links


  1. Levin, E (1996). "Nicotine-Haloperidol Interactions and Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenics". Neuropsychopharmacology. 15 (5): 429–436. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(96)00018-8. ISSN 0893-133X. 
  2. Vermeeren, A.; Muntjewerff, N. D.; Quint, P. J.; O'Hanlon, J. F.; Jackson, J. L.; Harrison, E. M. (1995). "Comparison of acute alprazolam (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg) effects versus those of lorazepam 2 mg and placebo on memory in healthy volunteers using laboratory and telephone tests". Psychopharmacology. 118 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1007/BF02245243. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  3. Johannes, Sönke; Wieringa, Bernardina M.; Nager, Wido; Dengler, Reinhard; Münte, Thomas F. (2001). "Oxazepam alters action monitoring". Psychopharmacology. 155 (1): 100–106. doi:10.1007/s002130100680. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Semlitsch, H.V.; Anderer, P.; Saletu, B. (1995). "Acute effects of the anxiolytics suriclone and alprazolam on cognitive information processing utilizing topographic mapping of event-related brain potentials (P300) in healthy subjects". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 49 (3). doi:10.1007/BF00192378. ISSN 0031-6970. 
  5. Naber, Dieter (2011). "Subjective effects of antipsychotic drugs and their relevance for compliance and remission". Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale. 17 (03): 174–176. doi:10.1017/S1121189X00001238. ISSN 1121-189X. 
  6. Kurita, Geana Paula; Lundorff, Lena; Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos; Sjøgren, Per (2008). "The cognitive effects of opioids in cancer: a systematic review". Supportive Care in Cancer. 17 (1): 11–21. doi:10.1007/s00520-008-0497-y. ISSN 0941-4355. 
  7. Twillman, Robert K; Long, Teresa D; Cathers, Teresa A; Mueller, David W (1999). "Treatment of Painful Skin Ulcers with Topical Opioids". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 17 (4): 288–292. doi:10.1016/S0885-3924(98)00140-7. ISSN 0885-3924. 
  8. Ersek, Mary; Cherrier, Monique M; Overman, Steven S; Irving, Gordon A (2004). "The cognitive effects of opioids". Pain Management Nursing. 5 (2): 75–93. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2003.11.002. ISSN 1524-9042. 
  9. Kaelen, Mendel; Giribaldi, Bruna; Raine, Jordan; Evans, Lisa; Timmerman, Christopher; Rodriguez, Natalie; Roseman, Leor; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin (2018). "The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy". Psychopharmacology. 235 (2): 505–519. doi:10.1007/s00213-017-4820-5. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  10. Freyd, Jennifer J.; Martorello, Susan R.; Alvarado, Jessica S.; Hayes, Amy E.; Christman, Jill C. (1998). "Cognitive environments and dissociative tendencies: performance on the standard Stroop task for high versus low dissociators". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 12 (7): S91–S103. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199812)12:7<S91::AID-ACP599>3.0.CO;2-Z. ISSN 0888-4080. 
  11. Nebes, Robert D.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Houck, Patricia; Saxton, Judith A. (2011). "Cognitive Slowing Associated With Elevated Serum Anticholinergic Activity in Older Individuals is Decreased by Caffeine Use". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 19 (2): 169–175. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181e4490d. ISSN 1064-7481. 
  12. Crean, Rebecca D.; Crane, Natania A.; Mason, Barbara J. (2011). "An Evidence-Based Review of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use on Executive Cognitive Functions". Journal of Addiction Medicine. 5 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1097/ADM.0b013e31820c23fa. ISSN 1932-0620. 
  13. Tapert, S., Schweinsburg, A., Brown, S. (1 January 2008). "The Influence of Marijuana Use on Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents". Current Drug Abuse Reviewse. 1 (1): 99–111. doi:10.2174/1874473710801010099. ISSN 1874-4737. Retrieved 4 June 2022. 
  14. Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Sendt, Kyra-Verena (2012). "Neuroimaging Evidence for Cannabinoid Modulation of Cognition and Affect in Man". Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 6. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00022. ISSN 1662-5153. 
  15. Roberto, Aaron J.; Lorenzo, Aileen; Li, Kevin J.; Young, Jonathan; Mohan, Abhishek; Pinnaka, Subhash; Lapidus, Kyle A. B. (2016). "First-Episode of Synthetic Cannabinoid-Induced Psychosis in a Young Adult, Successfully Managed with Hospitalization and Risperidone". Case Reports in Psychiatry. 2016: 1–4. doi:10.1155/2016/7257489. ISSN 2090-682X.