|Summary sheet: 5F-PB-22|
|Systematic name||1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid 8-quinolinyl ester|
|Routes of Administration|
5F-PB-22 (1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid 8-quinolinyl ester also known as 5F-QUPIC) is a synthetic cannabinoid and agonist of the cannabinoid receptors which produces predominantly sedating subjective effects somewhat similar to that of cannabis. There is very little information regarding the pharmacology of this compound within the scientific literature. Despite this, however, it has been sold as a grey area research chemical through online vendors.
Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. 5F-PB-22 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.
Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Five deaths have been associated with the use of 5F-PB-22 in the United States. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.
5F-PB-22, or quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyfluoro-1H-indole-3-8-carboxylate, is a synthetic indolecarboxylate as it contains a substituted core indole structure. This indole core is shared with other cannabinoid substances including PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. 5F-PB-22 is an ether with formula R-O-R', which can be understood as a substance with two sub-units joined through an oxygen bridge. The indole group of 5F-PB-22 is substituted at R5 with a fluoropentyl chain, a substitution shared with 5F-AKB48. Additionally, the indole core is substituted at R3 with a carboxylic acid group. The terminal oxygen of this carboxylic acid is bonded through an ether bond to a quinoline group at location R8 of the heterocycle.
Although this substance has not been formally studied, from analysis of the structure, it is presumed that 5F-PB-22 has a similar binding profile to that of other cannabinoids and matches many of the in vivo properties of Δ9-THC. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the cannabinoid high experience continues to remain elusive.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of 5F-PB-22 can be described as a warm and soft pleasurable, all-encompassing tingling sensation that spreads over the body. It maintains a consistent presence that quickly rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached before immediately dissipating.
- Sedation - Generally, the effects on the user's energy levels are very sedating. This encourages one to relax, lie down, and (at higher doses) fall asleep. It produces strong sedative effects that can be described as on par with JWH-018 and more sedating when compared to THC, JWH-073, THJ-018, AM-2201, or 5F-UR-144 but less than that of 5F-AKB48.
- Motor control loss - This substance causes a partial to moderate suppression of motor control which intensifies proportional to dose, but rarely results in a complete inability to walk and perform basic movements.
- Appetite enhancement - As with many other cannabinoids, 5F-PB-22 causes an increase in appetite, known colloquially as "the munchies" in popular American and United Kingdom culture. Clinical studies and survey data have found that cannabis increases food enjoyment and interest in food. This is thought to be due to the way in which endocannabinoids in the hypothalamus activate cannabinoid receptors that are responsible for maintaining food intake.
- Dehydration- This is known colloquially as "cotton mouth" in popular American and United Kingdom culture.
- Vasodilation - Cannabinoids appear to decrease blood pressure by dilating the blood vessels and increasing blood flow throughout the body. The arteries in the eyeball expand from the decreased blood pressure and the heart rate increases to compensate for the reduction in pressure.
- Pain relief - Cannabinoids have been clinically demonstrated to provide pain relief via agonism of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which extends to synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.
- Perception of bodily heaviness or Perception of bodily lightness
- Changes in gravity - 5F-PB-22, like other cannabinoids, is capable of causing vertigo with which the environment appears to be spinning or oscillating. At moderate doses, it can spontaneously induce the sensation of falling, which can be overwhelming and uncomfortable. The propensity of this is greatly reduced and eliminated in proportion to tolerance.
- Increased heart rate
- Colour enhancement
- Acuity suppression
- Geometry - As reported with other cannabinoids, 5F-PB-22 can produce closed eye visuals at moderate doses, which can escalate into visual distortions such as a ripples in the field of vision upon continuous administration. Within users who also regularly use psychedelics, it is capable of inducing these consistently in a visual style which seems to be an averaged out depiction of all the psychedelics one has used within the past. These rarely extend beyond level 4 geometry and are considered to be mild, fine, small and zoomed out but brighter and better defined than the geometry experienced with cannabis. They are not as defined as other synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018 or JWH-073.
- Emotion enhancement - The most prominent cognitive component of cannabinoids is the way in which they enhance the emotions one is already feeling proportional to dose. This can result in euphoria, extreme laughter, and increased immersion within tasks and activities, or it can result in anxiety and paranoia depending on the user's current state of mind.
- Euphoria - This can be considered very prominent in comparison to THJ-018, AM-2201, and 5F-UR-144 but less intense in comparison to JWH-073.
- Thought connectivity - This can attribute to fluid, more abstract thinking in comparison to linear thought.
- Anxiety - Subjectively, 5F-PB-22 is less anxiogenic and stimulating than Δ9-THC, THJ-018, AM-2201, or 5F-UR-144 but more so than JWH-073 or JWH-018.
- Paranoia - All cannabinoids are capable of inducing paranoia at high doses or with chronic administration.
- Thought deceleration
- Conceptual thinking
- Analysis suppression
- Dream suppression
- Immersion enhancement
- Psychosis - The prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to psychosis, particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).
- Increased music appreciation
- Psychedelics - When used in combination with psychedelics, cannabinoids are capable of intensifying and extending the duration of both the visual and cognitive effects with extreme efficiency. This should be used with caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics.
- Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced.
- Alcohol - When used in combination with alcohol, cannabinoids can cause feelings of extreme nausea, dizziness and changes in gravity. It is recommended that people smoke before drinking and not the other way around unless they are extremely cautious.
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 5F-PB-22 use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 5F-PB-22 has very little history of human usage. Informal experiments have shown that overdose will cause physical discomfort including heart palpitations, vertigo and sedation at much lower than dangerous doses, usually causing the user to suffer large amounts of anxiety or to fall asleep.
There have been many hospital reports involving 5F-PB-22, as well as cases of post-mortem analysis involving 5F-PB-22. Five deaths have been associated with the use of 5F-PB-22 in the United States.
It has often been recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase one's current state of mind and emotions. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis, particularly in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of schizophrenia).
As synthetic cannabinoids are active in the milligram range (with below 5mg being a common dose), it is important to use proper precautions when dosing to avoid a negative experience.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of 5F-PB-22 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of 5F-PB-22 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 5F-PB-22 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of 5F-PB-22 all cannabinoidss will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- Amphetamines - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
- Cocaine - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
5F-PB-22 was developed to bypass drug prohibition laws which have banned the possession and sale of many synthetic cannabinoids. As such, it remains legal in many parts of the world.
- China: As of October 2015 5F-PB-22 is a controlled substance in China.
- Germany: 5F-PB-22 is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) as of December 13, 2014. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Latvia: 5F-PB-22 is a Schedule I controlled substance.
- Switzerland: 5F-PB-22 is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- United Kingdom: 5F-PB-22 is a Class B controlled substance under the third-generation synthetic cannabinoids generic definition, which came into effect on December 14, 2016 and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.
- United States: In January 2014, 5F-PB-22 was designated as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States.
- ↑ Wohlfarth, A., Gandhi, A. S., Pang, S., Zhu, M., Scheidweiler, K. B., Huestis, M. A. (1 February 2014). "Metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids PB-22 and its 5-fluoro analog, 5F-PB-22, by human hepatocyte incubation and high-resolution mass spectrometry". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 406 (6): 1763–1780. doi:10.1007/s00216-014-7668-0. ISSN 1618-2650.
- ↑ https://www.caymanchem.com/msdss/13169m.pdf
- ↑ http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/51
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Synthetic cannabinoids in Europe
- ↑ Mechoulam, R., ed. (1986). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849357725.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 How Marijuana Works, 2001
- ↑ Martín-Sánchez, E., Furukawa, T. A., Taylor, J., Martin, J. L. R. (November 2009). "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cannabis Treatment for Chronic Pain". Pain Medicine. 10 (8): 1353–1368. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x. ISSN 1526-2375.
- ↑ Lynch, M. E., Campbell, F. (November 2011). "Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials: Cannabinoids for pain". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 72 (5): 735–744. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x. ISSN 0306-5251.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Witton, J., Murray, R. M. (February 2004). "Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 184 (2): 110–117. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.2.110. ISSN 0007-1250.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Every-Palmer, S. (September 2011). "Synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and psychosis: An explorative study". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 117 (2–3): 152–157. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.012. ISSN 0376-8716.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 Schneir, A. B., Cullen, J., Ly, B. T. (1 March 2011). ""Spice" Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 40 (3): 296–299. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.10.014. ISSN 0736-4679.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Vearrier, D., Osterhoudt, K. C. (June 2010). "A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed". Pediatric Emergency Care. 26 (6): 462–465. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181e4f416. ISSN 0749-5161.
- ↑ Behonick, G., Shanks, K. G., Firchau, D. J., Mathur, G., Lynch, C. F., Nashelsky, M., Jaskierny, D. J., Meroueh, C. (October 2014). "Four Postmortem Case Reports with Quantitative Detection of the Synthetic Cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 38 (8): 559–562. doi:10.1093/jat/bku048. ISSN 0146-4760.
- ↑ "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- ↑ "Anlage II BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- ↑ "Achtundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF) (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ↑ "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ↑ Zaudējis spēku - Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2016
- ↑ http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0110_10.htm