|Summary sheet: ΑMT|
|Common names||AMT, αMT, Indopan|
|Substitutive name||α-Methyltryptamine, alpha-methyltryptamine|
|Psychoactive class||Entactogen / Psychedelic|
|Routes of Administration|
α-Methyltryptamine (also known as Indopan and commonly as αMT or aMT) is a lesser-known entactogen substance of the tryptamine class.
αMT was originally developed by Upjohn in the 1960s. It was briefly used in the Soviet Union as an antidepressant under the trade name Indopan. Indopan was prescribed in 5-10 mg doses, which is significantly lower than the dose used for recreational effects.
Erowid has received "a handful of unverifiable reports of hospitalization after high-dose (over 60 mg oral) αMT ingestion." There were 22 deaths linked to αMT in England and Wales where the drug became popular as a legal high from 2012 until it was banned in early 2015.
Limited data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of aMT, and it has a limited history of non-medical human use. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
αMT, or α-Methyltryptamine is a synthetic indole alkaloid molecule of the tryptamine class. Tryptamines share a core structure comprised of a bicyclic indole heterocycle attached at R3 to an amino group via an ethyl side chain. AMT is substituted at the alpha carbon Rα of its tryptamine backbone with a methyl group.
AMT is found in freebase form as a racemate of its (R-) and (S-) enantiomers.
αMT acts as a relatively balanced reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent of the main three monoamines; serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, and as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist.
αMT's psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist.
αMT also acts as a releasing agent of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. It also acts as a very weak, non-selective RIMA in-vitro and in-vivo., but this is unlikely to be very significant (if at all) with common doses.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - Regarding its effects on the physical energy levels of the user, AMT tends to be very stimulating, resulting in jaw clenching and a shakiness and unsteadiness of the hands. The stimulation encourages the user to move around, run, dance, climb or engage in physical activities. In comparison, other common psychedelics such as psilocybin are sedating and relaxed.
- Spontaneous bodily sensations - AMT's "body high" can be described as an intense and constant all-encompassing sensation. In comparison to other psychedelics, this sensation does not manifest itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body spontaneously; it is instead felt like an extended, unchanging activation of every nerve ending on the body that lasts throughout the entire duration of the experience. This continuous sensation is immensely pleasurable but can become overwhelmingly intense and almost a burden at higher levels.
- Difficulty urinating - A slight difficulty urinating is occasionally present.
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Headaches - Many people report headaches towards the end of the experience.
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Nausea - Moderate to extreme nausea is commonly reported. This either passes once the user has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
- Pupil dilation
The visual effects of AMT are mostly present only when large doses have been consumed and are proportionally mild in comparison to the intensity of its accompanying cognitive and physical effects when compared to substances such as LSD and psilocin.
- Drifting (melting, flowing, breathing and morphing) - In comparison to other psychedelics, this effect can be described as highly detailed, slow and smooth in motion, static in appearance and unrealistic/cartoon-like in style.
- Symmetrical texture repetition - In comparison to more commonly used psychedelics such as LSD and psilocin, this effect is significantly less intricate and complex although it is still very distinct in its presence.
- After images
- Colour shifting
- Scenery slicing
The visual geometry produced by aMT can be described as more similar in appearance to that of Psilocin, and 2C-E than LSD. At lower levels it can appear to be bland and simplistic in complexity but becomes equal regarding intricacy and depth to that of any of the classical psychedelics at higher doses. It can be comprehensively described with its variations as intricate in complexity (at heavy dosages), abstract in form, organic in feel, structured in organization, brightly lit, multicoloured in scheme, glossy in shading, equal in soft and sharp edges, small in size, fast in speed, smooth in motion, equal in round and angular corners, non-immersive in depth, and consistent in intensity. At higher dosages, the visual geometry is significantly more likely to result in states of Level 8B geometry over Level 8A.
- Internal hallucination (autonomous entities; settings, sceneries, and landscapes; perspective hallucinations and scenarios and plots) - This particular effect is uncommon during the first half of the trip but capable of manifesting itself towards the end of the experience, particularly if sleep deprivation starts to take its toll due to the abnormally long duration. The internal hallucinations are more common within dark environments and can be comprehensively described through their variations as lucid in believability, fixed in style, new experiences in content, autonomous in controllability, geometry-based in style and almost exclusively of a personal, religious, spiritual, science-fiction, fantasy, surreal, nonsensical or transcendental nature in their overall theme.
In comparison to more traditional psychedelics such as LSD, DMT and Psilocin, the AMT head space is described as not nearly as deep, insightful or profound.
The total sum of these cognitive components regardless of the setting generally includes:
- Anxiety suppression
- Empathy, affection, and sociability enhancement - This effect is consistently manifested mainly in the context of social settings in which one is within the company of others. These feelings of sociability, love and empathy are a little weaker and less sharp than with MDMA.
- Analysis enhancement - This component is introspection dominant and consistently manifested only in the context of a non-social setting in which the user is alone.
- Conceptual thinking
- Emotion enhancement
- Cognitive euphoria
- Immersion enhancement
- Increased music appreciation
- Memory suppression
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- Time distortion
Anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index include:
- Experience:12 mg AMT - Nicely Surprised
- Experience:30mg - Horrible bodyload
- Experience:30mg - Psychostimulant egodeath
- Experience:aMT (70 mg, oral) - Testing AMT to the limit
Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.
As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational αMT use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dose is unknown. This is because AMT is a research chemical with very little history of human usage.
As a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, αMT can be dangerous when taken in excessive doses or when combined with MAOIs, RIMAs, stimulants and any substance which act as a releasing agent or reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and dopamine. There is one reported death from AMT, but it is not known how much of the substance was taken. Erowid states that they have received "a handful of unverifiable reports of hospitalization after high-dose (over 60 mg oral) AMT ingestion."
It is worth noting that αMT's analog αET has been shown to produce long-lasting serotonergic neurotoxicity at very high doses. It is possible that AMT could cause the same neurotoxicity at high dosages or with repeated long-term use.
Anecdotal reports suggest that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying aMT by itself at low to moderate doses and using it very sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
AMT is considered to be moderately habit-forming.
Tolerance to the effects of αMT is built almost immediately after ingestion. After that, it takes about 14 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 month to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). AMT presents cross-tolerance with all psychedelics, meaning that after the consumption of αMT all psychedelics will have a reduced effect.
Deaths from αMT are rare but, as a powerful monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI), injury could occur when excessive doses are taken or when it is taken with substances such as MAOIs, RIMAs, stimulants and any substance which act as a releasing agent or reuptake inhibitor of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine.
- Alcohol - aMT has a broad mechanism of action in the brain and so does alcohol so the combination can be unpredictable
- Caffeine - High doses of caffeine may cause anxiety which is less manageable when tripping, and since both are stimulating the combination may cause some physical discomfort.
- MAOIs - aMT is an MAOI on its own. Using enzyme inhibitors can greatly reduce predictability of effects.
As of 2014, AMT is not under international control.
- Australia: AMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell. It is controlled as an analogue of 5-MeO-AMT, which is a schedule 9 controlled substance.
- Austria: AMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).
- Canada: Canada has no mention of this substance in the Controlled substances and Substances Act.
- China: As of October 2015 AMT is a controlled substance in China.
- Denmark :In 2010, the Danish Minister for the Interior and Health placed AMT to their lists of controlled substances (List B).
- Germany: AMT is controlled under Anlage I BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule I) as of January 31, 1993. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Greece: AMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell under law 4139/2013. 
- Hungary:AMT was controlled on the Schedule C list in Hungary in 2013.
- Japan: AMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell.
- Latvia: AMT is a Schedule I drug.
- Lithuania: As of 2012, AMT is controlled as a tryptamine derivative under the 1st list of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances which prohibites its use for medical purposes.
- Russia: AMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell.
- Slovakia: AMT was placed on the List of Hazardous Substances in Annex, § 2 in Slovakia in 2013.
- Slovenia: AMT appeared on the Decree on Classification of Illicit Drugs in 2013.
- Spain: AMT is controlled according to the Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods.
- Sweden: AMT is illegal to possess, produce and sell.
- Switzerland: AMT, along with AET are controlled substances specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- United Kingdom: AMT is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the tryptamine catch-all clause.
- United States: αMT is a Schedule I drug. On April 4, 2003, the United States DEA added both 5-MeO-DiPT and αMT to Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act under "emergency scheduling" procedures. The drugs were officially placed into Schedule I on September 29, 2004.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1997). "#48. a-MT". TiHKAL: The Continuation. United States: Transform Press. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9. OCLC 38503252.
- ↑ "US Patent 3296072 - Method of Treating Mental Depression". Google Patents. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ↑ Donald G. Barceloux (March 20, 2012). Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 196–. ISBN 978-0-471-72760-6.
- ↑ Leslie Iversen (November 11, 2013). Handbook of Psychopharmacology: Volume 14 Affective Disorders: Drug Actions in Animals and Man. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-4613-4045-4.
- ↑ Biological Research on Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. Academic Press. 17 May 2013. pp. 632–. ISBN 978-0-12-398360-2.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 "AMT (Alphamethyltryptamine, IT-290) - Fatalities / Deaths". Erowid. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ↑ "Deaths related to drug poisoning, England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. August 15, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ↑ Nagai, F., Nonaka, R., Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, K. (March 2007). "The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain". European Journal of Pharmacology. 559 (2–3): 132–137. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.11.075. ISSN 0014-2999.
- ↑ Nonaka, R., Nagai, F., Ogata, A., Satoh, K. (2007). "In Vitro Screening of Psychoactive Drugs by [35S]GTP.GAMMA.S Binding in Rat Brain Membranes". Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 30 (12): 2328–2333. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.2328. ISSN 0918-6158.
- ↑ Nagai, F.; Nonaka, R.; Kamimura, K. S. H. (March 22, 2007). "The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain". European Journal of Pharmacology. 559 (2-3): 132–137. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.11.075. eISSN 1879-0712. ISSN 0014-2999. OCLC 01568459. PMID 17223101.
- ↑ Nonaka, R.; Nagai, F.; Ogata, A.; Satoh, K. (December 2007). "In Vitro Screening of Psychoactive Drugs by [35S]GTPγS Binding in Rat Brain Membranes". Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 30 (12): 2328–2333. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.2328. eISSN 1347-5215. ISSN 0918-6158. OCLC 27784830. PMID 18057721.
- ↑ Arai, Y.; Toyoshima, Y.; Kinemuchi, H. (1986). "Studies of Monoamine Oxidase and Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase II. Inhibition by α-Methylated Substrate-Analogue Monoamines, α-Methyltryptamine, α-Methylbenzylamine and Two Enantiomers of α-Methylbenzylamine". The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. 41 (2): 191–197. doi:10.1254/jjp.41.191. ISSN 1347-8613. PMID 3747266.
- ↑ Greig, M. E.; Walk, R. A.; Gibbons, A. J. (October 1959). "The effect of three tryptamine derivatives on serotonin metabolism in vitro and in vivo". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 127 (2): 110–115. eISSN 1521-0103. ISSN 0022-3565. OCLC 1606914. PMID 13851725.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Boland, D. M.; Andollo, W.; Hime, G. W.; Hearn, W. L. (July 1, 2005). "Fatality due to acute alpha-methyltryptamine intoxication". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 29 (5): 394–397. doi:10.1093/jat/29.5.394. eISSN 1945-2403. ISSN 0146-4760. OCLC 02942106. PMID 16105268.
- ↑ Huang, X. M.; Johnson, M. P.; Nichols, D. E. (July 23, 1991). "Reduction in brain serotonin markers by α-ethyltryptamine (Monase)". European Journal of Pharmacology. 200 (1): 187–190. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(91)90686-k. eISSN 1879-0712. ISSN 0014-2999. OCLC 01568459. PMID 1722753.
- ↑ Gillman, P. K. (October 1, 2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210. eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 Alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT): Critical Review Report (PDF). Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. Thirty-sixth Meeting. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). June 2014. pp. 14–15. Agenda item 4.20.
- ↑ "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act - Schedule I". Isomer Design. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ↑ "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). 国家食品药品监督管理总局 [China Food and Drug Administration]. September 27, 2015. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- ↑ "Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG) Anlage I" [Narcotics Act (BtMG) Schedule I] (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- ↑ "Vierte Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 1992 Teil I Nr. 61 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag [Federal Gazette] (published December 31, 1992). December 23, 1992. p. 1058. eISSN 0344-7634.
- ↑ "Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG) § 29" [Narcotics Act (BtMG) § 29] (in German). Bundesamt für Justiz [Federal Office of Justice]. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- ↑ Νόμος 4139/2013 - ΦΕΚ A-74/20-3-2013 (Κωδικοποιημένος)
- ↑ "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). VSIA Latvijas Vēstnesis. November 10, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Svensk författningssamling Förordning om ändring i förordningen (1999:58) om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor" (PDF) (in Swedish). October 16, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ "Part I: Class A Drugs". "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971". UK Government. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- ↑ "ALPHA-METHYLTRYPTAMINE" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration. April 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 28, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2020.