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Summary sheet: JWH-018
Chemical Nomenclature
Substitutive name JWH-018, AM-678
Systematic name Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Cannabinoid
Chemical class Naphthoylindole
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold < 1 mg
Light 1 - 2 mg
Common 2 - 3 mg
Strong 3 - 5 mg
Heavy 5 mg +
Total 1 - 2 hours
Onset 5 - 10 minutes
Peak 60 - 90 minutes
Offset 5 - 10 minutes
After effects 60 - 90 minutes

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (also called AM-678 and JWH-018)[1][2] is a full agonist synthetic cannabinoid first synthesized by organic chemist John W. Huffman. It gained popularity in late 2008 when German chemists found it as a chemical within the popular synthetic cannabis blend Spice, which had been sold in numerous countries around the world since 2002.[3][4][5]

Cannabinoids are commonly smoked or vaporized to achieve a quick onset of effects and rapid offset. JWH-018 is orally active when dissolved in a lipid, which can increase the duration significantly. Like other cannabinoids, it is insoluble in water but dissolves in ethanol and lipids.

Unlike cannabis, the chronic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with multiple deaths and more dangerous side effects and toxicity in general. Therefore, it is very strongly discouraged to take this substance for extended periods of time or in excessive doses.


JWH-018, or Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone, is a synthetic cannabinoid containing a substituted indole structure. This indole core is shared with other cannabinoid substances including PB-22, 5F-PB-22, JWH-018, and AM2201. JWH-018 is substituted at R1 with a pentyl chain. Additionally, the indole core is substituted at R3 with a carbonyl group which is also bonded to a napthalene moeity. Napthalene is a bicyclic structure of two fused benzene rings. This carbonyl bridge of JWH-018 classifies it as a ketone. JWH-018 is an analog of THJ-018, in which the core indazole structure is substituted with an indole base.


JWH-018 is a full agonist of both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with a reported binding affinity of 9.00 ± 5.00 nM at CB1 and 2.94 ± 2.65 nM at CB2.[6] However, the role of these interactions and how it results in the cannabinoid high experience continues to remain elusive.

Subjective effects

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

Auditory effects


  • Psychedelics - When used in combination with psychedelics, cannabinoids are capable of intensifying and extending the duration of both the visual and cognitive effects with extreme efficiency. This should be used with caution if one is not experienced with psychedelics.
  • Dissociatives - When used in combination with dissociatives, the geometry, euphoria, dissociation and hallucinatory effects are often greatly enhanced.
  • Alcohol - When used in combination with alcohol, cannabinoids can cause feelings of extreme nausea, dizziness and changes in gravity. It is recommended that one smoke before drinking and not the other way around unless they are extremely cautious.

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational JWH-018 use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because the drug has very little history of human usage.

JWH-018, like many synthetic cannabinoids, is a full agonist of the CB1 receptors in contrast to the partial agonist Δ9-THC. Because of this, harm mediated by CB1 receptor agonism can be more severe than its partial agonist counterparts.[15][16] JWH-018 has caused seizures and convulsions, and evidence suggests this is a result of inhibiting GABA neurotransmission more effectively than Δ9-THC.[17] JWH-018 has also been associated with strokes in two healthy adults.[18]

JWH-018 has also been known to exacerbate pre-existing psychological disorders causing intense paranoia, anxiety and agitation; however, Δ9-THC itself has been known to do this as well.[19] It is often recommended that those with severe pre-existing mental conditions should not ingest these substances due to the way they strongly increase the current state of mind of the person. Also, like THC, prolonged usage of synthetic cannabinoids may increase one's disposition to mental illness and psychosis,[11] especially in vulnerable individuals with risk factors for psychotic illnesses (like a past or family history of psychosis).[12][13][14]

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other synthetic cannibanoids, the chronic use of JWH-018 can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of JWH-018 develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). JWH-018 presents cross-tolerance with all cannabinoids, meaning that after the consumption of JWH-018 all cannabinoids will have a reduced effect.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

  • 2C-T-x
  • 2C-x
  • 5-MeO-xxT
  • Amphetamines - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  • aMT
  • Cocaine - Stimulants increase anxiety levels and the risk of thought loops which can lead to negative experiences
  • DMT
  • DOx
  • Lithium - Lithium is commonly prescribed in the treatment of bipolar disorder; however, there is a large body of anecdotal evidence that suggests taking it with cannabinoids can significantly increase the risk of psychosis and seizures. As a result, this combination should be strictly avoided.
  • LSD
  • Mescaline
  • Mushrooms
  • 25x-NBOMe

Legal status

  • Australia: The State of Queensland has listed JWH-018 as a dangerous drug under Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987. It is schedule 2, the same schedule as cannabis.[20]
  • Austria: The Austrian Ministry of Health announced on December 18, 2008 that Spice would be controlled under paragraph 78 of their drug law on the grounds that it contains an active substance that affects the functions of the body, and the legality of JWH-018 is under review. JWH-018 is now illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Gesetz Österreich).[citation needed]
  • Belarus: This substance was banned on January 1, 2010.[citation needed]
  • Brazil: Possession, production and sale is illegal as it is listed on Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.[21]
  • Canada: JWH-018 is claimed to be a controlled substance in Canada though it is not listed under schedule 2 synthetic cannabinoids.[citation needed]
  • China: China has made JWH-018 illegal for sale. It is illegal to import or export JWH-018.[citation needed]
  • Estonia: JWH-018 is controlled under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act as of July 24, 2009.[citation needed]
  • Finland: This substance was banned on March 12, 2012.[22]
  • France: JWH-018 is a controlled substance under Annexe IV as of February 24, 2009.[17][23]
  • Germany: JWH-018 is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II)[24] as of January 22, 2009.[25] It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.[26]
  • Ireland: An immediate ban was announced on May 11, 2010 by Minister for Health Mary Harney.[27]
  • Italy: This substance was banned on July 2, 2010.[28]
  • Latvia: JWH-018 is a controlled substance[29] as of November 28, 2009.
  • Lithuania: JWH-018 is a controlled substance as of May 27, 2009.[17]
  • Luxembourg: JWH-018 is a controlled substance as of May 4, 2009.[17]
  • Norway: This substance was banned on December 21, 2011.[30]
  • Poland: JWH-018 is a controlled substance as of May 8, 2009.[17]
  • Romania: This substance was banned on February 15, 2010.[citation needed]
  • Russia: This substance was banned on January 22, 2010.[citation needed]
  • South Korea: This substance was banned on July 1, 2009.[31]
  • Sweden: A bill to ban JWH-018 was accepted on July 30, 2009 and entered into force on September 15, 2009.[17]
  • Switzerland: JWH-018 is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.[32]
  • Turkey: JWH-018 is a classed as drug and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import.[33]
  • Ukraine: This substance was banned on May 31, 2010.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: This substance was banned on December 23, 2009.[34]
  • United States: This substance was permanently scheduled on July 9, 2012 by Section 1152 of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA).[35]

See also

External links


  1. DEA Rule On Synthetic Cannabinoids, PDF, Controlled Substances Act, Cannabis (Drug) 
  2. https://www.caymanchem.com/msdss/13169m.pdf
  3. http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt_und_hessen/nachrichten/frankfurt/1646010_Gefaehrlicher-Kick-mit-Spice.html
  4. http://www.haz.de/newsroom/wissen/zentral/wissen/art680,757107#
  5. Zeitung, B., Spice enthält chemischen Wirkstoff - Panorama - Badische Zeitung 
  6. https://www.caymanchem.com/pdfs/13169.pdf
  7. Mechoulam, R., ed. (1986). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849357725. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 How Marijuana Works, 2001 
  9. Martín-Sánchez, E., Furukawa, T. A., Taylor, J., Martin, J. L. R. (November 2009). "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cannabis Treatment for Chronic Pain". Pain Medicine. 10 (8): 1353–1368. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00703.x. ISSN 1526-2375. 
  10. Lynch, M. E., Campbell, F. (November 2011). "Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials: Cannabinoids for pain". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 72 (5): 735–744. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x. ISSN 0306-5251. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Witton, J., Murray, R. M. (February 2004). "Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 184 (2): 110–117. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.2.110. ISSN 0007-1250. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Every-Palmer, S. (September 2011). "Synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and psychosis: An explorative study". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 117 (2–3): 152–157. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.012. ISSN 0376-8716. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Schneir, A. B., Cullen, J., Ly, B. T. (1 March 2011). ""Spice" Girls: Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 40 (3): 296–299. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2010.10.014. ISSN 0736-4679. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Vearrier, D., Osterhoudt, K. C. (June 2010). "A Teenager With Agitation: Higher Than She Should Have Climbed". Pediatric Emergency Care. 26 (6): 462–465. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181e4f416. ISSN 0749-5161. 
  15. Atwood, B. K., Huffman, J., Straiker, A., Mackie, K. (June 2010). "JWH018, a common constituent of 'Spice' herbal blends, is a potent and efficacious cannabinoid CB 1 receptor agonist: 'Spice' contains a potent cannabinoid agonist". British Journal of Pharmacology. 160 (3): 585–593. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00582.x. ISSN 0007-1188. 
  16. Atwood, B. K., Huffman, J., Straiker, A., Mackie, K. (June 2010). "JWH018, a common constituent of 'Spice' herbal blends, is a potent and efficacious cannabinoid CB 1 receptor agonist: 'Spice' contains a potent cannabinoid agonist". British Journal of Pharmacology. 160 (3): 585–593. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00582.x. ISSN 0007-1188. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 "THEMATIC PAPERS: Understanding the 'Spice' phenomenon" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). 2009. doi:10.2810/27063. ISBN 978-92-9168-411-3. ISSN 1725-5767. Retrieved December 30, 2019. 
  18. Freeman, M. J., Rose, D. Z., Myers, M. A., Gooch, C. L., Bozeman, A. C., Burgin, W. S. (10 December 2013). "Ischemic stroke after use of the synthetic marijuana "spice"". Neurology. 81 (24): 2090–2093. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000437297.05570.a2. ISSN 1526-632X. 
  19. Every-Palmer, S. (October 2010). "WARNING: LEGAL SYNTHETIC CANNABINOID-RECEPTOR AGONISTS SUCH AS JWH-018 MAY PRECIPITATE PSYCHOSIS IN VULNERABLE INDIVIDUALS: Letters to the Editor". Addiction. 105 (10): 1859–1860. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03119.x. ISSN 0965-2140. 
  20. In force legislation - Queensland Legislation - Queensland Government 
  21. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/10181/3115436/%281%29RDC_130_2016_.pdf/fc7ea407-3ff5-4fc1-bcfe-2f37504d28b7
  22. http://www.kauppalehti.fi/5/i/yritykset/lehdisto/stt-info/tiedote.jsp?selected=kaikki&oid=20120301/13305932981210
  23. http://www.afssaps.fr/var/afssaps_site/storage/original/application/d23d05edc58479d91c803b496017f073.pdf
  24. "Anlage II BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 30, 2019. 
  25. "Zweiundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2009 Teil I Nr. 3 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. January 21, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2019. 
  26. "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 19, 2019. 
  27. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2010/0511/breaking41.html
  28. http://www.politicheantidroga.it/comunicazione/comunicati/2010/luglio/spice,-n-joy-e-mefedrone-da-oggi-stupefacenti.aspx
  29. "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). Latvijas Vēstnesis. Retrieved December 30, 2019. 
  30. http://www.lovdata.no/ltavd1/filer/sf-20111221-1465.html
  31. 1일부터 ‘5-메오-밉트’ 등 향정신성의약품 지정, 2009 
  32. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  33. Başbakanlık Mevzuatı Geliştirme ve Yayın Genel Müdürlüğü 
  34. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/law/article6965663.ece
  35. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2014/fr0110_10.htm