|Summary sheet: Butylone|
|Common names||Butylone, bk-MBDB, B1|
|Psychoactive class||Stimulant / Entactogen|
|Chemical class||Cathinone / MDxx|
|Routes of Administration|
Butylone (also known as β-keto-N-methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine, βk-MBDB, or B1) is a synthetic entactogen and stimulant substance of the cathinone class. It is the β-keto analog of MBDB and the substituted methylenedioxy analogue of buphedrone.
As a designer drug, it is commonly sold on the street along with ethylone as a substitute or counterfeit for MDMA and methylone (all of which have collectively come to be referred to as "Molly") due to methylone's declining availability on the research chemical market. However, in spite of behavioral and pharmacological similarities between butylone and MDMA, the observed subjective effects of both substances are not completely identical.
Subjective effects include stimulation, thought acceleration, motivation enhancement, increased libido, appetite suppression, and euphoria, Butylone is reported to be less potent than its relatives methylone and ethylone as well as possessing more classic stimulant as opposed to entactogenic effects.
Butylone has a very short history of human use and very little data exists about its pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity. It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
Butylone, or β-keto-N-methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine, is a synthetic molecule of the cathinone family. Cathinones are structurally similar to amphetamines in that they contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional ethyl substitution at Rα. Cathinones such as butylone are alpha-methylated phenethylamines (i.e. amphetamines) but differ from them with the addition of a ketone functional group (a carbonyl group at Rβ). Butylone contains a methyl substitution at RN, a substitution which is shared with MDEA, ethylone, 4-MEC, and certain other stimulants and entactogens. Additionally, butylone contains substitutions at R3 and R4 of the phenyl ring with oxygen groups. These oxygen groups are incorporated into a methylenedioxy ring through a methylene chain. Butylone shares this methylenedioxy ring with MDA, MDAI and MDMA.
Butylone acts as a mixed reuptake inhibitor/releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. These are the neurotransmitters in charge of pleasure, reward, motivation and focus. This is done by inhibiting the reuptake and reabsorption of the neurotransmitters after they have performed their function of transmitting a neural impulse, essentially allowing them to accumulate and be reused, causing physically stimulating and euphoric effects.
In comparison to methylone, it has approximately over 4x lower affinity for the norepinephrine transporter, while its affinity for the serotonin and dopamine transporters is similar. The results of these differences in pharmacology relative to MDMA is that butylone, like its close analog ethylone is less potent in terms of dose, has more balanced catecholaminergic effects relative to serotonergic, and behaves more like a reuptake inhibitor like methylphenidate than a releaser like amphetamine; however, butylone still has relatively robust releasing capabilities.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Stimulation - In terms of its effects on the user's physical energy levels, butylone is commonly considered to be highly stimulating and energetic. This encourages activities such as running, climbing and dancing in a way that makes butylone a popular choice for musical events such as festivals and raves. The particular style of stimulation which butylone presents can be described as forced. This means that at higher doses, it becomes difficult or impossible to keep still as jaw clenching, involuntarily bodily shakes, and vibrations become present, resulting in an extreme unsteadiness of the hands and a general lack of motor control.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of butylone can be described as a strong euphoric tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. It is capable of becoming overwhelmingly pleasurable at higher doses. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Vibrating vision - At high doses, a person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
- Dehydration - Feelings of dry mouth and dehydration are a universal experience with butylone; this effect is a product of an increased heart rate and an extreme motivation to engage in strenuous physical activities. While it is important to avoid becoming dehydrated (especially when out dancing in a hot environment) there have been some users suffering from water intoxication through over-drinking, so it is advised that users simply sip at water and never over-drink.
- Difficulty urinating - Higher doses of butylone result in an overall difficulty when it comes to urination. This is an effect that is entirely temporary and harmless. It is due to butylone’s promotion of the release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is responsible for regulating urination. This effect can be lessened by simply relaxing, but can be significantly relieved by placing a hot flannel over the genitals to warm them up and encourage blood flow.
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Tactile enhancement
- Increased heart rate
- Increased perspiration
- Increased blood pressure
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
The cognitive effects of butylone can be broken down into several components which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The general headspace of butylone is described by many as one of extreme mental stimulation, light feelings of love or empathy and moderate euphoria. It contains a large number of typical psychedelic, entactogenic and stimulant cognitive effects.
The most prominent of these cognitive effects include:
- Cognitive euphoria - Strong emotional euphoria and feelings of happiness are present within butylone and are likely a direct result of serotonin and dopamine release. In comparison to MDMA, it is closer in effects to that of the euphoria felt within amphetamine and mephedrone.
- Empathy, love, and sociability enhancement - Although distinct and powerful in its effects, this particular feeling is less pronounced and therapeutic when compared to that of MDMA. It can be described as less forceful and more internal in its manifestation, resulting in feelings of love and empathy that are not necessarily felt as essential to express to others.
- Time distortion - Strong feelings of time compression are common within butylone and speed up the experience of time quite noticeably.
- Thought acceleration
- Analysis enhancement
- Increased libido
- Increased music appreciation
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational butylone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because butylone has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried butylone within the community suggests that there do not seem to be strong adverse effects attributed to using this substance at low to moderate doses and sparingly.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of butylone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of butylone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Butylone presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of butylone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Abuse of compounds within the stimulant class at high dosages for prolonged periods of time can potentially result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, or delusions). A review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. The same review asserts that, based upon at least one trial, antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - 25x compounds are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with Butylone should be strictly avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and heart strain. This can result in increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol's depressant effects, which is what most people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects will be left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If mixing, the user should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibiting effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. There is an increased risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with serotonin releasers (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA - Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA are likely to be increased when other stimulants are present. There is also a risk of excessive blood pressure and heart strain (cardiotoxicity).
- MXE - Some reports suggest combinations with MXE may dangerously increase blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives - Both classes carry a risk of delusions, mania and psychosis, and these risk may be multiplied when combined.
- Stimulants - Butylone may be dangerous to combine with other stimulants like cocaine as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold and combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
Serotonin syndrome risk
Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.
- MAOIs - Such as banisteriopsis caapi, syrian rue, phenelzine, selegiline, and moclobemide.
- Serotonin releasers - Such as MDMA, 4-FA, methamphetamine, methylone and αMT.
- SSRIs - Such as citalopram and sertraline
- SNRIs - Such as tramadol and venlafaxine
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
- Austria: Butylone is illegal to possess, produce and sell under the NPSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act).
- Brazil: As of September 7, 2018, all cathinone analogues are controlled substances considered illegal to possess, use and distribute. This was made possible due to a blanket ban law appended to Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Canada: Butylone is controlled as a Schedule I substance.
- China: As of October 2015 butylone is a controlled substance in China.
- Finland: Butylone is a controlled substance.
- Germany: Butylone is controlled under Anlage II BtMG (Narcotics Act, Schedule II) as of July 26, 2012. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, import, export, buy, sell, procure or dispense it without a license.
- Israel: Butylone is a controlled substance.
- Japan: Butylone is a controlled substance.
- Norway: Butylone is a controlled substance.
- Poland: Butylone is a controlled substance.
- Sweden: Butylone is a Schedule I controlled substance as of February 1, 2010.
- Switzerland: Butylone is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis D.
- United Kingdom: Butylone is a Class B drug in the United Kingdom as a result of the cathinone catch-all clause.
- United States: Butylone is unscheduled in the United States. However it could be considered an analog of methylone or MDMA, thus making it illegal under the scope of the Federal Analog Act.
- ↑ "Cathinone | Ask Dr. Shulgin Online".
- ↑ Cozzi, N. V., Sievert, M. K., Shulgin, A. T., Jacob, P., Ruoho, A. E. (17 September 1999). "Inhibition of plasma membrane monoamine transporters by beta-ketoamphetamines". European Journal of Pharmacology. 381 (1): 63–69. doi:10.1016/s0014-2999(99)00538-5. ISSN 0014-2999.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Nagai, F., Nonaka, R., Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, K. (22 March 2007). "The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain". European Journal of Pharmacology. 559 (2): 132–137. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.11.075. ISSN 0014-2999.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Simmler, L., Buser, T., Donzelli, M., Schramm, Y., Dieu, L.-H., Huwyler, J., Chaboz, S., Hoener, M., Liechti, M. (January 2013). "Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro: Pharmacology of cathinones". British Journal of Pharmacology. 168 (2): 458–470. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02145.x. ISSN 0007-1188.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., Ling, W. (21 January 2009). Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, ed. "Treatment for amphetamine psychosis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3. ISSN 1465-1858.
- ↑ Hofmann, F. G. (1983). A handbook on drug and alcohol abuse: the biomedical aspects (2nd ed ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195030563.
- ↑ http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183.
- ↑ Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 . eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- ↑ New blanket ban on synthetic illegal drugs is approved (Portuguese) | http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/noticias/-/asset_publisher/FXrpx9qY7FbU/content/combate-a-drogas-ilicitas-sinteticas-fica-mais-facil/219201/pop_up?_101_INSTANCE_FXrpx9qY7FbU_viewMode=print&_101_INSTANCE_FXrpx9qY7FbU_languageId=pt_BR
- ↑ "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- ↑ "Anlage II BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- ↑ "Sechsundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften" (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- ↑ "§ 29 BtMG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- ↑ "Föreskrifter om ändring i Läkemedelsverkets föreskrifter (LVFS 1997:12) om förteckningar över narkotika" (PDF) (in Swedish). Läkemedelsverkets författningssamling. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2010