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Fatal overdose may occur when GABAergic substances are combined with other depressants such as opiates, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gabapentinoids, thienodiazepines or alcohol.[1]

It is strongly discouraged to combine these substances, particularly in common to heavy doses.


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Summary sheet: Zaleplon
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Sonata, Starnoc, Andante
Substitutive name Zaleplon
Systematic name N-[3-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenyl]-N-ethylacetamide
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Depressant / Hallucinogen
Chemical class Pyrazolopyrimidine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Bioavailability 30%±10%[2]
Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 10 mg
Common 10 - 30 mg
Strong 30 - 60 mg
Heavy 60 mg +
Total 90 - 120 minutes
Onset 5 - 15 minutes
Peak 30 - 60 minutes
Offset 10 - 20 minutes
After effects 2 - 4 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


Zaleplon (trade name Sonata) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug. It is of the hypnotic and depressant psychoactive classes and is chemically a pyrazolopyrimidine. When taken for recreational purposes, at doses far higher then the prescribed dose, it is capable of producing powerful and bizarre atypical hallucinogenic, hypnotic, deliriant and even psychedelic effects. Some individuals use a different delivery method than prescribed, such as insufflation, to induce effects faster

Zaleplon is a member of a family known as "Z-drugs." Other Z-drugs include zolpidem (Ambien) and zopiclone. These drugs were designed to be more selective in their hypnotic actions than benzodiazepines.

Zaleplon is recommended to be taken on a short-term basis only. Daily or continuous use of the drug is not usually advised.

History and culture

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This chemistry section is incomplete.

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Zaleplon is a pyrazolopyrimidine having a nitrile group at position 3 and a 3-(N-ethylacetamido)phenyl substituent at the 7-position.


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This pharmacology section is incomplete.

You can help by adding to it.

Zaleplon has a pharmacological profile similar to benzodiazepines. Zaleplon is a full agonist for the benzodiazepine a1 receptor located on the GABAA receptor ionophore complex in the brain, with lower affinity for the a2 and a3 subtypes. It selectively enhances the action of GABA similar to but more selectively than benzodiazepines.[3]

In regards to how the consumption of this compound results in its bizarre hallucinations, the pharmacological mechanics behind this are not understood and do not seem to have been directly studied. It is worth noting, however, that zaleplon may share similar mechanisms as a GABAA receptor agonist to that of muscimol, which is the active compound within the hallucinogenic amanita muscaria mushroom.

Subjective effects

This subjective effects section is a stub.

As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.

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Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Disconnective effects

Visual effects

Cognitive effects

Auditory effects

Experience reports

There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential


This toxicity and harm potential section is a stub.

As a result, it may contain incomplete or even dangerously wrong information! You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.
Note: Always conduct independent research and use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

By itself, zaleplon likely has a low toxicity relative to dose. However, it is potentially lethal when mixed with depressants like benzodiazepines, alcohol or opioids.[3]

As with other Z-drugs, zaleplon use may result in bizarre and dangerous behavior.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

Zaleplon is moderate physically and psychologically addictive.

Tolerance will develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within a couple of weeks of daily use. However, when used therapeutically, the tolerance to the zaleplon's sleep onset shortening effects does not appear to occur. After cessation, the tolerance returns to baseline in 7 - 14 days. Withdrawal symptoms or rebound symptoms may occur after ceasing usage abruptly following a few weeks or longer of steady dosing, and may necessitate a gradual dose reduction.

Dangerous interactions


This dangerous interactions section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or invalid information. You can help by expanding upon or correcting it.

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

  • Depressants (1,4-Butanediol, 2M2B, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB/GBL, methaqualone, opioids) - This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of suffocating on one's vomit while unconscious. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
  • Dissociatives - This combination can unpredictably potentiate the amnesia, sedation, motor control loss and delusions that can be caused by each other. It may also result in a sudden loss of consciousness accompanied by a dangerous degree of respiratory depression. If nausea or vomiting occurs before consciousness is lost, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
  • Stimulants - Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one's fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.

Legal status


This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • EU - Zaleplon was withdrawn within the EU.[citation needed]
  • Switzerland - Zaleplon was withdrawn in Switzerland in 2011.[citation needed]
  • United States - Zaleplon is Schedule IV under the Controlled Substance Act (CSA), meaning it is judged to have "some potential for abuse."" Possession without a prescription is illegal.
  • Canada - Zaleplon is not scheduled in Canada. However, it may be illegal to possess without a valid prescription. [citation needed]
  • Russia: Zaleplon is available through a prescription.[citation needed]

See also

External links