|Summary sheet: Mexedrone|
|Common names||Mexedrone, 4-MMC-MeO|
|Psychoactive class||Stimulant / Entactogen|
|Routes of Administration|
Mexedrone (3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(p-tolyl)propan-1-one also known as 4-MMC-MeO) is a putative stimulant and possible euphoriant of the cathinone chemical class with a potency of roughly 1/10th of that of mephedrone.
This compound has little to no history of human usage prior to its release in August 2015 as a newly available grey area research chemical. It has been primarily marketed as a legal alternative to mephedrone although anecdotal reports seem to universally suggest that it is largely inferior in its recreational effects due to its weaker potency, lack of stimulation and euphoria. It may have been developed as a result of another much more effective, but problematic mephedrone derivative, N-methoxymephedrone.
Mexedrone, or 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(p-tolyl)propan-1-one, is a synthetic molecule of the cathinone family. Cathinones are structurally similar to amphetamines. They contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines and cathinones are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. Cathinones contain an additional ketone group bonded at R1.
Mexedrone contains additional methyl substitutions at RN (similar to MDMA and methamphetamine) and R4 of its phenyl ring. Mexedrone is named for the methoxy group (C3O-) bound to the methyl group located at Rα. Mexedrone is closely analogous to mephedrone, however, mephedrone lacks the additional methoxy group bonded to the α-methyl group.
Mexedrone acts as a releasing agent of serotonin and a reuptake inhibitor for monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline . Despite its chemical similarity to mephedrone, it lacks the dopamine and noradrenaline releasing properties, and is approximately 10-20x weaker in its reuptake inhibiting and serotonin releasing properties.
This increase in neurotransmitters provides an explanation for the euphoric and anecdotal stimulating effects induced by this experience. The serotonergic activity with lack of significant dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity is similar to that of MDAI and consistent with usage reports that often state that mexedrone is more sedating than stimulating.
Due to the much lower potency (1/7 to 1/20th at different monoamine transporters) compared to mephedrone, considerably higher doses are required to achieve noticeable effects.
Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.
It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.
- Physical euphoria
- Tactile enhancement
- Sedation - The biggest difference between mexedrone and mephedrone is that it primarily results in moderate sedation over stimulation and can therefore discourage physical activities such as running, dancing or climbing.
- Spontaneous physical sensations - The "body high" of mexedrone can be described as a mild soft and warm tingling sensation that encompasses the entire body. This sensation maintains a consistent presence that steadily rises with the onset and hits its limit once the peak has been reached.
- Vibrating vision - At high doses, a person's eyeballs may begin to spontaneously wiggle back and forth in a rapid motion, causing the vision to become blurry and temporarily out of focus. This is a condition known as nystagmus.
- Increased perspiration
- Temperature regulation suppression
- Teeth grinding - This component can be considered to be less intense when compared with that of MDMA.
- Euphoria - Mild emotional euphoria and feelings of happiness are present within mexedrone and are likely a direct result of serotonin and dopamine release.
- Thought acceleration
- Thought connectivity
- The effects which occur during the offset of a stimulant experience generally feel negative and uncomfortable in comparison to the effects which occurred during its peak. This is often referred to as a "comedown" and occurs because of neurotransmitter depletion. Its effects commonly include:
Toxicity and harm potential
The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational mexedrone use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because mexedrone has very little history of human usage.
Anecdotal reports from those who have tried mexedrone within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
Tolerance and addiction potential
As with other stimulants, the chronic use of mexedrone can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.
Tolerance to many of the effects of mexedrone develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). Mexedrone presents cross-tolerance with all dopaminergic stimulants, meaning that after the consumption of mexedrone all stimulants will have a reduced effect.
Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).
Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.
- 25x-NBOMe & 25x-NBOH - 25x compounds are highly stimulating and physically straining. Combinations with Mexedrone should be strictly avoided due to the risk of excessive stimulation and heart strain. This can result in increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, panic attacks, thought loops, seizures, and heart failure in extreme cases.
- Alcohol - Combining alcohol with stimulants can be dangerous due to the risk of accidental over-intoxication. Stimulants mask alcohol's depressant effects, which is what most people use to assess their degree of intoxication. Once the stimulant wears off, the depressant effects will be left unopposed, which can result in blackouts and severe respiratory depression. If mixing, the user should strictly limit themselves to only drinking a certain amount of alcohol per hour.
- DXM - Combinations with DXM should be avoided due to its inhibiting effects on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. There is an increased risk of panic attacks and hypertensive crisis, or serotonin syndrome with serotonin releasers (MDMA, methylone, mephedrone, etc.). Monitor blood pressure carefully and avoid strenuous physical activity.
- MDMA - Any neurotoxic effects of MDMA are likely to be increased when other stimulants are present. There is also a risk of excessive blood pressure and heart strain (cardiotoxicity).
- MXE - Some reports suggest combinations with MXE may dangerously increase blood pressure and increase the risk of mania and psychosis.
- Dissociatives - Both classes carry a risk of delusions, mania and psychosis, and these risk may be multiplied when combined.
- Stimulants - Mexedrone may be dangerous to combine with other stimulants like cocaine as they can increase one's heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels.
- Tramadol - Tramadol is known to lower the seizure threshold and combinations with stimulants may further increase this risk.
- Cocaine - This combination may increase strain on the heart.
Serotonin syndrome risk
Combinations with the following substances can cause dangerously high serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome requires immediate medical attention and can be fatal if left untreated.
- MAOIs - Such as banisteriopsis caapi, syrian rue, phenelzine, selegiline, and moclobemide.
- Serotonin releasers - Such as MDMA, 4-FA, methamphetamine, methylone and αMT.
- SSRIs - Such as citalopram and sertraline
- SNRIs - Such as tramadol and venlafaxine
This legality section is a stub.
As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.
Mexedrone is not a controlled substance in most countries, meaning it is ostensibly legal to possess and distribute. However, the sale for human consumption or the use for non-medical or research purposes could be prosecuted as crimes under an analogue law.
- Brazil: As of September 7, 2018, all cathinone analogues are controlled substances considered illegal to possess, use and distribute. This was made possible due to a blanket ban law appended to Portaria SVS/MS nº 344.
- Sweden: Mexedrone is a controlled substance and is therefore illegal to import, produce, sell or possess.
- Switzerland: Mexedrone is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.
- United Kingdom: It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.
- ↑ Welsh Emerging Drugs & Identification of Novel Substances Project | http://www.wedinos.org/db/materials/view/00716
- ↑ Sommerlad, N., Bagot, M. (2015), Dangerous untested legal high - dubbed new Meow Meow - is flooding UK streets
- ↑ New Legal High Similar To Banned Mephedrone Set To Sweep Britain | http://www.unilad.co.uk/drugs/new-legal-high-similar-to-banned-mephedrone-set-to-sweep-britain/
- ↑ McLaughlin, G., Morris, N., Kavanagh, P. V., Power, J. D., Dowling, G., Twamley, B., O’Brien, J., Talbot, B., Walther, D., Partilla, J. S., Baumann, M. H., Brandt, S. D. (March 2017). "Synthesis, characterization and monoamine transporter activity of the new psychoactive substance mexedrone and its N-methoxy positional isomer, N-methoxymephedrone". Drug testing and analysis. 9 (3): 358–368. doi:10.1002/dta.2053. ISSN 1942-7603.
- ↑ Talaie, H.; Panahandeh, R.; Fayaznouri, M. R.; Asadi, Z.; Abdollahi, M. (2009). "Dose-independent occurrence of seizure with tramadol". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 5 (2): 63–67. doi:10.1007/BF03161089. eISSN 1937-6995. ISSN 1556-9039. OCLC 163567183.
- ↑ Gillman, P. K. (2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 95 (4): 434–441. doi:10.1093/bja/aei210 . eISSN 1471-6771. ISSN 0007-0912. OCLC 01537271. PMID 16051647.
- ↑ New blanket ban on synthetic illegal drugs is approved (Portuguese) | http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/noticias/-/asset_publisher/FXrpx9qY7FbU/content/combate-a-drogas-ilicitas-sinteticas-fica-mais-facil/219201/pop_up?_101_INSTANCE_FXrpx9qY7FbU_viewMode=print&_101_INSTANCE_FXrpx9qY7FbU_languageId=pt_BR
- ↑ Regeringskansliets rättsdatabaser
- ↑ "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- ↑ Psychoactive Substances Act 2016