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Wakefulness is defined as an increased ability to stay conscious without feeling sleepy combined with a decreased need to sleep.[1] It is contrasted with stimulation in that it does not directly increase one's energy levels above a normal baseline but instead produces feelings of a wakeful, well-rested, and alert state.[2][3] If one is sleepy before using this substance, the impulse to sleep will fade, keeping one’s eyes open will become easier, and the cognitive fog of exhaustion will be reduced.[4] However, sufficiently accumulated sleep deficiency can overpower or negate this effect in extreme cases.[2]

Wakefulness is most commonly induced under the influence of moderate dosages of a wide variety of compounds such as stimulants, nootropics, and psychedelics. However, it is worth noting that the few compounds which selectively induce this effect without a number of other accompanying effects are referred to as eugeroics or wakefulness-promoting agents. These include modafinil[2][3][5][6] and armodafinil.[2]

Psychoactive substances

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Experience reports

Anecdotal reports which describe this effect within our experience index include:

See also

External links


  1. Porkka-Heiskanen, T. (1997). "Adenosine: A Mediator of the Sleep-Inducing Effects of Prolonged Wakefulness". Science. 276 (5316): 1265–1268. doi:10.1126/science.276.5316.1265. ISSN 0036-8075. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Repantis, Dimitris; Schlattmann, Peter; Laisney, Oona; Heuser, Isabella (2010). "Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review". Pharmacological Research. 62 (3): 187–206. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2010.04.002. ISSN 1043-6618. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Engber, T.M; Dennis, S.A; Jones, B.E; Miller, M.S; Contreras, P.C (1998). "Brain regional substrates for the actions of the novel wake-promoting agent modafinil in the rat: comparison with amphetamine". Neuroscience. 87 (4): 905–911. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00015-3. ISSN 0306-4522. 
  4. Caldwell, John A.; Caldwell, J. Lyn; Smyth, Nicholas K.; Hall, Kecia K. (2000). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the efficacy of modafinil for sustaining the alertness and performance of aviators: a helicopter simulator study". Psychopharmacology. 150 (3): 272–282. doi:10.1007/s002130000450. ISSN 0033-3158. 
  5. Myrick, Hugh; Malcolm, Robert; Taylor, Brent; LaROWE, STEVEN (2004). "Modafinil: Preclinical, Clinical, and Post-Marketing Surveillance—A Review of Abuse Liability Issues". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 16 (2): 101–109. doi:10.1080/10401230490453743. ISSN 1040-1237. 
  6. Scammell, Thomas E.; Estabrooke, Ivy V.; McCarthy, Marie T.; Chemelli, Richard M.; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Miller, Matthew S.; Saper, Clifford B. (2000). "Hypothalamic Arousal Regions Are Activated during Modafinil-Induced Wakefulness". The Journal of Neuroscience. 20 (22): 8620–8628. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-22-08620.2000. ISSN 0270-6474.