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Not to be confused with 2'-Oxo-PCE.
Summary sheet: Deschloroketamine
Chemical Nomenclature
Common names Deschloroketamine, DCK, DXE, O-PCM
Substitutive name Deschloroketamine
Systematic name 2-Phenyl-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone
Class Membership
Psychoactive class Dissociative
Chemical class Arylcyclohexylamine
Routes of Administration

WARNING: Always start with lower doses due to differences between individual body weight, tolerance, metabolism, and personal sensitivity. See responsible use section.

Threshold 5 mg
Light 5 - 10 mg
Common 10 - 20 mg
Strong 20 - 40 mg
Heavy 40 mg +
Total 30 - 90 minutes
Threshold 10 mg
Light 10 - 20 mg
Common 20 - 30 mg
Strong 30 - 50 mg
Heavy 50 mg +
Total 4 - 6 hours
Onset 10 - 30 minutes
Come up 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 1.5 - 2.5 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects 3 - 24 hours

Threshold 5 mg
Light 10 - 15 mg
Common 15 - 25 mg
Strong 25 - 40 mg
Heavy 40 mg +
Total 3 - 6 hours
Onset 5 - 15 minutes
Come up 30 - 60 minutes
Peak 1.5 - 2.5 hours
Offset 1 - 2 hours
After effects 3 - 24 hours

DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy.


2'-Oxo-PCM (also known as deschloroketamine, O-PCM, DXE, and DCK) is a lesser-known novel dissociative substance of the arylcyclohexylamine class that produces dissociative, anesthetic and hallucinogenic effects when administered.[1][2]

Early discussion over DCK has revolved around speculation over claims of antibacterial or immunosuppressant properties. If this speculation is valid, it is possible that its prolonged use could potentially pose a serious threat to one's health and immune system, which is why misuse of this substance is highly discouraged.[3] Ketamine has been found to have similar properties.[4]

DCK has become easily accessible through online research chemical vendors[1] where it is being sold as a designer drug.[5][6][7]

Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DCK, and it has a very brief history of human usage. It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices if choosing to use this substance.


Deschloroketamine, or 2-Phenyl-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone, is classed as an arylcyclohexylamine drug. Arylcyclohexylamine drugs are named for their structures which include a cyclohexane ring bound to an aromatic ring along with an amine group. Descholoroketamine contains a phenyl ring bonded to a cyclohexane ring substituted with an oxo group (cyclohexanone). An amino methyl chain (-N-CH3) is bound to the adjacent alpha carbon (R2) of the cyclohexanone ring.

Descholoroketamine is a chiral molecule and is often produced as a racemate. Des- is a prefix used in chemistry to denote the absence of a functional group (in this case "chloro") hence deschloroketamine is named for lacking a chlorine substitution on its phenyl ring, which is found in ketamine.


Further information: NMDA receptor antagonist

Due to the lack of research regarding the substance, all discussion regarding the pharmacology of it is purely based on its structure and subjective effect similarities to other arylcyclohexylamine dissociatives such as 3-MeO-PCP, PCP and MXE. With this in mind, DCK is thought to act as an NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors, a type of glutamate receptor, allow for excitatory electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. Dissociatives inactivate the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurons leads to the general loss of bodily sensation, motor coordination, memory recall and eventually this substance's equivalent of the “k-hole.”

Subjective effects

This subjective effects section is a stub.

As such, it is still in progress and may contain incomplete or wrong information.

You can help by expanding or correcting it.

In terms of its subjective effects, this compound feels closer to that of ketamine and MXE than more stimulating, non-immobilizing compounds of the same class such as 3-MeO-PCP, O-PCE and PCP. It has therefore come to be considered a more suitable ketamine substitute than many other popular arylcyclohexylamines currently available on the research chemicals market, although users are advised to exercise extreme caution due to the health risks it may pose if it does possess its speculated antibacterial properties.

Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), an open research literature based on anecdotal user reports and the personal analyses of PsychonautWiki contributors. As a result, they should be viewed with a healthy degree of skepticism.

It is also worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a predictable or reliable manner, although higher doses are more liable to induce the full spectrum of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become increasingly likely with higher doses and may include addiction, severe injury, or death ☠.

Physical effects

Disconnective effects

Multi-sensory effects

Experience reports

There are currently anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index.

Additional experience reports can be found here:

Toxicity and harm potential

The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational DCK use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because DCK has very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried DCK within the community suggests that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed). Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

As DCK has been speculated to have antibacterial properties,[2] its prolonged use could potentially pose a serious threat to one's health and immune system.

It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

Tolerance and addiction potential

As with other NMDA receptor antagonists, the chronic use of DCK can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

Tolerance to many of the effects of DCK develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). DCK presents cross-tolerance with all dissociatives, meaning that after the consumption of DCK all dissociatives will have a reduced effect.

Urinary tract effects

In terms of its long-term health effects when used repeatedly and with excess for extended periods of time, DCK seems to exhibit almost identical bladder and urinary tract problems to those found within ketamine but to a lesser extent. This is suspected to be because DCK is more potent than ketamine, meaning that less of the drug needs to be consumed to produce analogous effects. Symptoms of ketamine-induced cystitis can become extremely serious and include:

  • Urinary frequency - Urinary frequency is the need to empty the bladder every few minutes.
  • Urinary urgency - This can be described as a sudden, compelling need to urinate.
  • Urinary pressure - This is experienced as a constant sensation of fullness in the bladder that is unrelieved by urination.
  • Pelvic and bladder pain - Pain can develop suddenly and severely, particularly as the bladder fills with urine.
  • Hematuria - Hematuria is visible blood in the urine.
  • Incontinence - This is the leakage of urine.

All of these, however, can easily be avoided by simply not using DCK on a daily or even weekly basis and manually limiting one's usage of the substance.

Dangerous interactions

Warning: Many psychoactive substances that are reasonably safe to use on their own can suddenly become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with certain other substances. The following list provides some known dangerous interactions (although it is not guaranteed to include all of them).

Always conduct independent research (e.g. Google, DuckDuckGo, PubMed) to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Some of the listed interactions have been sourced from TripSit.

  • Stimulants - Both stimulants and dissociatives carry the risk of adverse psychological reactions like anxiety, mania, delusions and psychosis and these risks are exacerbated when the two substances are combined.
  • Depressants - Because both depress the respiratory system, this combination can result in an increased risk of suddenly falling unconscious, vomiting and choking to death from the resulting suffocation. If nausea or vomiting occurs, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.

Legal status


This legality section is a stub.

As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

  • Italy: Deschloroketamine is illegal in Italy.[8]
  • Latvia: Deschloroketamine is illegal in Latvia.[9]
  • Germany: Deschloroketamine is controlled under the NpSG (New Psychoactive Substances Act)[10] as of July 18, 2019.[11] Production and import with the aim to place it on the market, administration to another person and trading is punishable. Possession is illegal but not penalized.[12]
  • Switzerland: Deschloroketamine is a controlled substance specifically named under Verzeichnis E.[13]
  • United Kingdom: Deschloroketamine is a class B drug in the UK and is illegal to possess, produce, supply, or import. As an N-alkyl derivative of 2-Amino-2-phenylcyclohexanone, it is covered by the arylcyclohexylamine generic clause added to the Misuse of Drugs Act by S.I. 2013/239, which came into effect on the 26th February 2013.[14]
  • Czech Republic: Deschloroketamine is legal in the Czech Republic.[15]
  • Austria: Deschloroketamine is illegal in Austria under the NPSV (Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Verordnung).[16]

See also

External links



  • Morris, H., & Wallach, J. (2014). From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(7–8), 614–632.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Robins, E. G., Zhao, Y., Khan, I., Wilson, A., Luthra, S. K., Rstad, E. (1 March 2010). "Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of (18)F-labelled S-fluoroalkyl diarylguanidines: Novel high-affinity NMDA receptor antagonists for imaging with PET". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 20 (5): 1749–1751. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.01.052. ISSN 1464-3405. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stevens, C. L., Aminoketones and methods for their production 
  3. Preiss, D., Tatar, A., Use of 2-methylamino-2-phenylcyclohexanone for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, virus or protozoan infections as well as for immunomodulation 
  4. Gocmen, S., Buyukkocak, U., Caglayan, O. (2008). "In vitro investigation of the antibacterial effect of ketamine". Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 113 (1): 39–46. doi:10.3109/2000-1967-211. ISSN 2000-1967. 
  5. Frison, G., Zamengo, L., Zancanaro, F., Tisato, F., Traldi, P. (15 January 2016). "Characterization of the designer drug deschloroketamine (2-methylamino-2-phenylcyclohexanone) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, multistage mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance". Rapid communications in mass spectrometry: RCM. 30 (1): 151–160. doi:10.1002/rcm.7425. ISSN 1097-0231. 
  6. Alert: descloroketamina sold as ketamine in Barcelona |
  7. Villalba, J. (2015), Los efectos desconocidos de la sequía de ketamina 
  9. Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem |
  10. "Anlage NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019. 
  11. "Verordnung zur Änderung der Anlage des Neue-psychoaktive-Stoffe-Gesetzes und von Anlagen des Betäubungsmittelgesetzes" (PDF). Bundesgesetzblatt Jahrgang 2019 Teil I Nr. 27 (in German). Bundesanzeiger Verlag. July 17, 2019. pp. 1083–1094. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  12. "§ 4 NpSG" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz [Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection]. Retrieved December 10, 2019. 
  13. "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien" (in German). Bundeskanzlei [Federal Chancellery of Switzerland]. Retrieved January 1, 2020. 
  14. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2013 
  15., A. C.-, 463/2013 Sb. Nařízení vlády o seznamech návykových látek 
  16. RIS - Neue-Psychoaktive-Substanzen-Verordnung - Bundesrecht konsolidiert, Fassung vom 21.07.2022