List of psychoactive substances, and precursor chemicals, produced by GMOs derived from genetically modified organisms

From PsychonautWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Psycoactive substances

  • Cocaine
    • GMO plant: Nicotiana benthamiana (a tobacco plant)[1]
  • Psilocybin
    • GMO bacteria: Escherichia coli[2]
    • GMO yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) strain[3][4][5]
  • Phytocannabinoids
  • Tropane alkaloids (see Datura): Hyoscyamine and scopolamine
    • GMO yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) strain[10]

Precursor chemicals produced by GMOs

See also: List of precursors

  • Lysergic acid (LSD precursor)
    • GMO yeast: Baker’s Yeast[11]
  • Thebaine (morphine precursor)
    • GMO bacteria: E. coli[12]

See also

External links


  1. "Genetically modified tobacco plant produces cocaine in its leaves". New Scientist. 
  2. Satyanarayana M (7 October 2019). "Modified E. coli pump out psilocybin". Chemical & Engineering News. 97 (39): 11. doi:10.1021/cen-09739-scicon9. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.  Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. Technical University of Denmark (2020-04-16). "Psychedelic compound from magic mushrooms produced in yeast". (in English). Archived from the original on April 30, 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-02.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. Milne N (2021-01-15). "Magic Yeasts and How to Make Them Produce Psilocybin". MIND Foundation (in English). Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved 2021-01-17.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. Wong, G; Lim, LR; Tan, YQ; Go, MK; Bell, DJ; Freemont, PS; Yew, WS (7 February 2022). "Reconstituting the complete biosynthesis of D-lysergic acid in yeast". Nature communications. 13 (1): 712. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28386-6. PMC 8821704Freely accessible Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 35132076. 
  7. "Yeast produce low-cost, high-quality cannabinoids". ScienceDaily (in English). 
  8. "German scientists use gene-edited Tequila bacteria to produce cannabinoids". The Drinks Business. 28 March 2019. 
  9. Luo X, Reiter MA, d'Espaux L, Wong J, Denby CM, Lechner A, et al. (March 2019). "Complete biosynthesis of cannabinoids and their unnatural analogues in yeast" (PDF). Nature. 567 (7746): 123–26. Bibcode:2019Natur.567..123L. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-0978-9. PMID 30814733.  Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  10. Srinivasan, Prashanth; Smolke, Christina D. (September 2020). "Biosynthesis of medicinal tropane alkaloids in yeast". Nature (in English). pp. 614–619. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2650-9. 
  11. "Harvesting baker's yeast for aging-related therapeutics". ScienceDaily (in English). 
  12. "Genetically modified E. coli pump out morphine precursor: Bacteria yield 300 times more opiates than yeast". ScienceDaily (in English).